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Briljantni hrvatski znanstvenik otkrio fenomen za povećanje snage lasera

 
 
Marin Soljačić i mit - Otkriće takozvanog "iznimnog prstena", odnosno kontinuiranog prstena iznimnih točaka, otvara nove putove u istraživanju primijenjenih znanosti i tehnologije, poput moćnijih lasera, preciznih optičkih senzora i drugih uređaja - Tim fizičara s MIT-ja, među kojima je i ugledni hrvatski izumitelj Marin Soljačić, pronašao je neobičan fenomen koji nastaje u takozvanim 'Diracovim stožcima', pojavi koja je učestala u dvodimenzionalnim materijalima, poput grafena i koja je u posljednjih deset godina bila u središtu mnogih važnih otkrića u fizici.
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
Fizičari već dugo vremena znaju za postojanje jedinstvenih točaka u kojima dva fizička stanja materije srastaju u jedno. Fizičari ih još zovu i "iznimne točke'. Te točke rađaju protuintuitivan fenomen, gdje materijal koji je većinom neproziran, odaje dojam prozirnosti i kroz koji se svjetlost može kretati u jednom, ali ne i drugom smijeru. Otkriće takozvanog "iznimnog prstena", odnosno kontinuiranog prstena iznimnih točaka, otvara nove putove u istraživanju primijenjenih znanosti i tehnologije, poput moćnijih lasera, preciznih optičkih senzora i drugih uređaja, ističu istraživači s MIT-ja. U njihovom slučaju, fenomen "iznimnih prstenova" pronađen je u komadu nanostrukturiranog materijala koji se naziva fotonički kristal.
 
Rezultati njihovog istraživanja objavljeni su u prestižnom znanstvenom časopisu Nature, a u istraživanju su osim Marina Soljačića, sudjelovali i Bo Zhen s MIT-ja, Chia Wei Hsu s Yalea, John Joannopolous s MIT-ja te petero drugih znanstvenika. Njihov rad predstavlja prvi eksperimentalni prikaz prstena iznimnih točaka te je to i prva studija koja se povezuje s istraživanjem iznimnih točaka s fizikalnim konceptima simetrije paritet-vremena i Diracovih stožaca. Iako su i druge skupine znanstvenika proučavale prstenje iznimnih točaka, znanstvenici s MIT-ja otkrili su novu vrstu tog prstena. "Umjesto gubitka absorpcije, mi smo usvojili novi mehanizam gubitka - gubitak zračenja - koji ne utječe na performanse uređaja. Štoviše, gubitak zračenja je koristan te nužan u uređajima poput lasera", ističe Zhen.
 
Hrvatski fizičar i izumitelj Soljačić već vidi potencijalnu tehnološku primjenu ovog revolucionarnog otkrića. "Jedna važna moguća primjena ovog rada je u stvaranju moćnijih laserskih sustava, od onih koje omogućuje dosadašnja tehnologija", ističe hrvatski znanstvenik. "Laseri fotoničkih kristala su vrlo obećavajući kandidat za iduću generaciju visoko kvalitetnih, snažnih i kompaktnih laserskih sustava i mi procjenjujemo da možemo poboljšati izlaznu snagu takvih lasera za faktor od najmanje 10", kaže Soljačić.
 
Isto tako, ovo otkriće može poboljšati i dosadašnje visoko precizne detektore bioloških i kemijskih materijala i supstancija, jer njihov sustav karakterizira ekstremna osjetljivost, zbog egzotinih svojstava iznimnih točaka, gdje njihova reakcija na smetnje nije linearna sa snagom tih smetnji. Drugim riječima, otkrivanje supstance čiji tragovi u uzorku su slabi, više ne moraju biti teško primjetljivi. Primjerice, ako je koncentracija traženog uzorka reducirana milijun puta, u klasičnim senzorima signal se linearno smanjuje milijun puta, dok sustav znanstvenika s MIT-ja više nije linearan, a signal se smanjuje samo 1000 puta što povećava njegovu responzivnost na detektore, pojašnjava Hsu.
 

http://direktno.hr/en/2014/direkt/24786/Brilijantni-hrvatski-znanstvenik-otkrio-fenomen-za-pove%C4%87anje-snage-lasera.htm

Zapisano biva sačuvano

 
 
Školovanima je odavna poznata izreka zapisana na latinskom jeziku:Historia est magistra vitae,koja prevedena na hrvatski jezikglasi: „Povijest je učiteljica života“. Pri tome treba imati na umu da „Verba volant, scripta manent“, što znači da zapisano biva sačuvano, a usmeno izrečeno ne biva zauvijek sačuvano i zapamćeno, ali se prenosi usmenom predajom, pri čemu je značenje riječi podložno promjenama i zaboravu. Rasprava o svemu ovdje zapisanom upućuje nas i na mogućnosti da se osvrnemo i na prapovijest, pa i na procjene kakva će povijest uslijediti.
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
Osobno sam sklon temeljno se osloniti na biblijske početke, pa se usredotočitina dio onoga što je uslijedilo. Zato često običavam podsjećati na Dekalog, tj. „Deset Zapovjedi Božjih“, koje Bog preko Mojsija, uklesano podari kao temeljni zakon opstanka i moralnosti ljudskih zajednica. Zato o tome nije potrebna rasprava, već postupanjeu skladu s Deset Božjih Zapovjedi.No, mnogo je toga povijestno važna na što je korisno podsjetiti, pri čemu mnogo toga dugujemo antičkim Grcima i Rimljanima.
 
Trenutačno stanje u Hrvatskoj podsjetilo me na mudru izreku„Aurora musis amica“, ali i na razlike u djelima i značenjima različitih vladara. Prvi rimski car bijaše moćni Car August, za čije vladavine bje zabilježeno da se rodio Isus Krist, ali dosta iza toga se pojavi i car zapamćen po opakostima, kojeg muze nisu usmjerile prema činidbi dobrih djela već divljenju sebi i činidbi opakosti: Neronbijaše opaka osoba, a Aurora se nije pokazala kao prijateljica pravim muzama, već onima čija nadahnućausmjeravaju osobe prema sebeljubljui činidbi zlodjela. Ali Svemogući Bog to vidje, pa mučeničkom smrću i Uskrsnućem svoga sina Isusa Krista, ojača vjeru i nadu narodu kojeg stvori, da vjerni Bogu ne umiru zauvijek.
S uzdanjem u Boga!
 

Prof. dr. sc. Marijan Bošnjak, dipl. kem. ing., domoljub i katolik

Izaslanici iz niskih otoka ugroženih poplavama zbog porasta razine more nisu mogli otputovati kući s potpisom na dokumentu

 
 
„Povijest je ovdje”, objavio je francuski predsjednik François Hollande u subotu ujutro. Klimatska konferencija UN-a u Parizu prekoračila je prvotno predviđen rok, a konačni tekst još nije bio poznat, no raspoloženje među pregovaračima i ministrima kojima se Hollande obraćao bilo je na razini. A veselje se nastavilo i tijekom ostatka dugog dana. Posebni predstavnik NR Kine za klimatske promjene Xie Zhenhua veselo je zagrlio britanskog ekonomista Nicholasa Sterna. Kada je francuski ministar vanjskih poslova Laurent Fabius uvečer proglasio kako je završila aukcija za sporazum, među uzvanicima su izbili usklici, suze i slavlje.
http://img.src.ca/2015/12/01/635x357/151201_m112y_conference-paris_sn635.jpg
„Pariški sporazum”, koji je finaliziran pod pokroviteljstvom UN-a, trebao bi zaustaviti povećanje prosjeka temperature u svijetu na razini „znatno manjoj od dva stupnja Celzija iznad predindustrijskih razina te potpomoći naporima za ograničenje povećanja temperature na razinu koja bi bila 1,5 stupnja Celzija viša od predindustrijskih razina”, što je ambiciozniji cilj od onoga koji se očekivao. Slična je ambicija bila očigledna i po tome što se eksplicitno poručilo kako je cilj da u drugoj polovici ovoga stoljeća iz atmosfere izlazi jednaka količina stakleničkih plinova koliko ih i iz nje izlazi.
 
Sporazum je nadišao ono što se očekivalo i u mnogim proceduralnim pogledima pa su se tako postigli kompromisi na koje su sve strane bile spremne te koje su mnogi vanjski promatrači pozdravili. Prije samih pregovora, aktivistička istraživačka organizacija E35 iscrtala je tri klase mogućih ishoda: ishod najmanjeg mogućeg zajedničkog nazivnika pod imenom „zombi”, srednje kvalitetan ishod pod nazivom „tako-tako” i potencijalno fantastičan ishod „nevjerojatno”. Nakon što su vidjeli tekst sporazuma, aktivisti su ga svrstali u posljednju kategoriju.
 
No nikakve pohvale ne mijenjaju činjenicu da napori koji se trenutačno ulažu u borbu protiv klimatskih promjena ni izbliza ne zadovoljavaju ambiciozne ciljeve postavljene u Parizu. Svijet je gotovo jedan stupanj Celzija topliji nego što je bio u 18. stoljeću. Napori koji su predviđeni u obećanjima o klimatskoj politici – „ciljani nacionalni određeni doprinosi” koje su si zadale zemlje na pariškim pregovorima – više su u skladu s ukupnim zatopljenjem od tri stupnja Celzija nego s namjerom obuzdavanja zatopljenja na razini manjoj od dva stupnja. Upravo je potonja granica bila upisana u prethodne dokumente UN-a, a u usporedbi s njom cilj od 1,5 stupnja Celzija čini se vrlo ambiciozan.
 
Prema Johnu Schellnhuberu, čelniku Potsdamskog instituta za istraživanje klimatskih promjena, za postizanje cilja ograničenja rasta temperature na razinu „znatno manju od dva stupnja Celzija” nužno je da emisije ugljikova dioksida u svijetu prestanu rasti „mnogo prije 2030.” i da ih se eliminira „što je prije moguće nakon 2050.”. To bi predstavljalo stopu „dekarbonizacije” (što je riječ koja se u sporazumu ne može naći, i to zahvaljujući prigovorima Saudijske Arabije i nekih drugih zemalja) koja bi bila mnogo veća od bilo čega čemu je svijet dosad imao prilike svjedočiti.
 
Sporazumom su predviđeni procesi kojima bi se trebala podići razina globalnog djelovanja, no iako iziskuju više truda nego što su neki bili očekivali, po sebi nisu dovoljni da bi se postigao trenutačni cilj. Sporazumom se traži da zemlje djeluju protiv klimatskih promjena i povećaju svoje napore s vremenom, no ne spominje se ništa konkretno o tome koliko bi zemlje pojedinačno trebale činiti. Naprosto postoji nada da je cijeli svijet sada usmjeren na isti cilj i da će sa sve boljom tehnologijom i sve snažnijim financiranjem za zemlje u razvoju ambicije brzo rasti, pri čemu bi se svakih pet godina trebale ponovno sagledati nakon „procjene stanja”. Prvi takav sud trebao bi se dogoditi 2018.
Prava zabrinutost zbog klime, javnog mišljenja i međunarodnog pritiska dovela je do obećanja koja su dana u Parizu. Svi se nadaju da će slični procesi pritiska odozdo, a ne neprimjenjivi mandati UN-a, povećati razinu djelovanja sljedećih desetljeća. Procesu bi trebao doprinijeti predvidljiviji priljev novca iz bogatijih u siromašnije zemlje, kao i napori za prilagodbu klimatskim promjenama koje se ne budu mogle izbjeći. Pariškim se sporazumom predviđa da će razvijene zemlje zemljama u razvoju do 2020. davati 100 milijardi dolara godišnje, pri čemu bi se ta svota trebala podvrgnuti ponovnoj procjeni 2025. Sporazumom se također zahtijeva da svakih nekoliko godina jasno predoče planove za taj novac.
 
Tijekom cijele pariške konferencije, razvijene zemlje govorile su kako prihvaćaju obvezu da predvode takve napore. Jedna od posljedica dvotjednih pregovora bila je to da se sporazumom „ohrabruje” i druge države da daju svoj obol ako budu dovoljno imućne za to. To možda ne zvuči kao veliko postignuće. No prijeporna je točka u klimatskim pregovorima dugo bila oštra podjela između razvijenih zemalja i zemalja u razvoju pa velike zemlje u razvoju poput Kine (najvećeg svjetskog proizvođača ugljikova dioksida) i Indije nikako nisu željele da ih se tretira jednako kao razvijene zemlje. Tekst kojime ih se potiče da preuzmu ulogu u financiranju jedan je od niza načina na koji je pariški sporazum uspio nadići tu podjelu. Činjenica da bi sve države trebale davati doprinos na sve sličnijoj razini bila je ono čime je Hollande obrazložio zadovoljstvo sporazumom kao prvim dokumentom te vrste koji se univerzalno primjenjuje.
 
Hollande je bio ponosan na postignuće, a za to je imao i razloga. Francuska je predsjedala pregovorima pod pokroviteljstvom Ujedinjenih naroda i vodila je sastanke samouvjereno. Teren su dobro pripremili francuski diplomati pod vodstvom veleposlanika za klimu Laurencea Tubiane, a pregovori su bili dovoljno otvoreni da su sve strane osjećale da ih se sluša, no Fabius je po potrebi ujedno ubrzavao proces čvrstim vodstvom. Bila je to sasvim drugačija situacija u odnosu na kaos na sastanku na vrhu o klimi u Kopenhagenu prije šest godina.
 
Pariški je sporazum dosad neviđeno političko priznanje rizika od klimatskih promjena. Upravo je to prizma kroz koju valja promatrati naizgled nepraktičan interes za postizanje ograničenja od 1,5 stupnja Celzija. Tim se ciljem željelo istaknuti koliko hitnim to pitanje smatraju države koje su klimatskim promjenama više izložene, ali se htjelo također i podići ulog, čak i ako će se time u praksi slabo doprinijeti povećanju razine djelovanja u skorije vrijeme. Izaslanici iz niskih otoka ugroženih poplavama zbog porasta razine more nisu mogli otputovati kući s potpisom na dokumentu koji bi bio pakt za samoubojstvo. Kao što je primijetio ministar vanjskih poslova Maršalovih otoka Tony de Brum, „Naša šansa za opstanak nije izgubljena.”
 
S političkim je napretkom usko povezana gospodarska tranzicija. Možda će najznačajniji učinak pariškog sporazuma u sljedećih nekoliko godina biti signal koji će se njime odaslati ulagačima: ujedinjene vlade svijeta kažu da se doba fosilnih goriva bliži kraju. To ne znači da su one nužno u pravu, ali niti da će završetak tog razdoblja biti razvučeniji nego što bi Maršalovi Otoci i druge takve države željeli. Međutim, nakon Pariza, vjera u to da će vlade ostati pri svojim proklamiranim zelenim strategijama činit će se donekle bolje potkrijepljenom, a pomisao ulaganja u ugljenokope doimat će se rizičnijom.
 

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